As for men who committed adultery with another man's wife , Abba ben Joseph and Abba Arika are both quoted in the Talmud as expressing abhorrence, and arguing that such men would be condemned to Gehenna. The laws of "family purity" tehorat hamishpacha are considered an important part of an Orthodox Jewish marriage, and adherence to them is in Orthodox Judaism regarded as a prerequisite of marriage.
This involves observance of the various details of the menstrual niddah laws. Orthodox brides and grooms attend classes on this subject prior to the wedding. The niddah laws are regarded as an intrinsic part of marital life rather than just associated with women. Together with a few other rules, including those about the ejaculation of semen , these are collectively termed "family purity".
In marriage, conjugal relations are guaranteed as a fundamental right for a woman, along with food and clothing. If either partner refuses to participate, that person is considered rebellious, and the other spouse can sue for divorce.
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Early-teen marriage was possible in Judaism. Babylonian rabbis encouraged early marriage as a means of legally channeling the male libido. Despite the young threshold for marriage, a large age gap between the spouses was opposed,  and, in particular, marrying one's young daughter to an old man was declared as reprehensible as forcing her into prostitution.
A ketannah literally meaning "little [one]" was any girl between the age of 3 years and that of 12 years plus one day;  she was subject to her father's authority, and he could arrange a marriage for her without her agreement. If the father was dead or missing, the brothers of the ketannah , collectively, had the right to arrange a marriage for her, as had her mother. If the marriage did end due to divorce or the husband's death , any further marriages were optional; the ketannah retained her right to annul them. Evidence from Rabbinic material indicates that Jewish males normally married at the age of thirty, to adolescent women.
Rates of marriage between Jews and non-Jews have increased in countries other than Israel the Jewish diaspora.
Jewish leaders in different branches generally agree that possible assimilation is a crisis, but they differ on the proper response to intermarriage. There are also differences between streams on what constitutes an intermarriage, arising from their differing criteria for being Jewish in the first place. Orthodox Jews do not accept as Jewish a person whose mother is not Jewish, nor a convert whose conversion was conducted under the authority of a more liberal stream.
In Israel , the only institutionalized form of Jewish marriage is the religious one, i. Specifically, marriage of Israeli Jews must be conducted according to Jewish Law halakha , as viewed by Orthodox Judaism. One consequence is that Jews in Israel who cannot marry according to Jewish law e. This has led for calls, mostly from the secular segment of the Israeli public, for the institution of civil marriage. Some secular-Jewish Israelis travel abroad to have civil marriages , either because they do not wish an Orthodox wedding or because their union cannot be sanctioned by halakha.
These marriages are legally recognized by the State, but are not recognized by the State Rabbinate. Marriages performed in Israel must be carried out by religious authorities of an official religion Judaism, Islam, Christianity, or Druse , unless both parties are without religion. Halakha Jewish law allows for divorce. The document of divorce is termed a get.
The final divorce ceremony involves the husband giving the get document into the hand of the wife or her agent, but the wife may sue in rabbinical court to initiate the divorce.
In such a case, a husband may be compelled to give the get , if he has violated any of his numerous obligations; [ which? In this case, the wife may or may not be entitled to a payment. Since around the 12th century, Judaism recognized the right of a wife abused physically or psychologically to a divorce.
Conservative Judaism follows halacha, though differently than Orthodox Judaism. Reform Jews usually use an egalitarian form of the Ketubah at their weddings. They generally do not issue Jewish divorces, seeing a civil divorce as both necessary and sufficient; however, some Reform rabbis encourage the couple to go through a Jewish divorce procedure. Orthodox Judaism does not recognize civil law as overriding religious law, and thus does not view a civil divorce as sufficient.
Therefore, a man or woman may be considered divorced by the Reform Jewish community, but still married by the Conservative community. Orthodox Judaism usually does not recognize Reform weddings because according to Talmudic law, the witnesses to the marriage must be Jews who observe halacha, which is seldom the case in reform weddings.
Traditionally, when a husband fled, or his whereabouts were unknown for any reason, the woman was considered an agunah literally "an anchored woman" , and was not allowed to remarry; in traditional Judaism, divorce can only be initiated by the husband. Prior to modern communication, the death of the husband while in a distant land was a common cause of this situation.
In modern times, when a husband refuses to issue a get due to money, property, or custody battles, the woman who cannot remarry is considered a Michuseres Get, not an agunah. A man in this situation would not be termed a Misarev Get literally, "a refuser of a divorce document" , unless a legitimate Beis Din had required him to issue a Get.
The term agunah is often used in such circumstances, but it is not technically accurate. Within both the Conservative and Orthodox communities, there are efforts to avoid situations where a woman is not able to obtain a Jewish divorce from her husband. After the fact, various Jewish and secular legal methods are used to deal with such problems.
None of the legal solutions addresses the agunah problem in the case of a missing husband.
The Midrash is one of the few ancient religious texts that makes reference to same-sex marriage. The following teaching can be found twice in the Midrash:. Another important reference is found in the Babylonian Talmud:. Bnei Noach, the progeny of Noah] accepted upon themselves thirty mitzvot [divinely ordered laws], but they only abide by three of them: The first one is that they do not write marriage documents for male couples, the second one is that they do not sell dead [human] meat by the pound in stores, and the third one is that they respect the Torah.
Orthodox Judaism does not have a Jewish legal construct of same-gender marriage. While any two Jewish adults may be joined by a Jewish legal contract, the rites of kiddushin are reserved for a union of a man and woman. Orthodox Judaism does not recognize civil marriages to have theological legal standing, be they civil marriages between male and female, or between two adults of the same gender. In June , the American branch of Conservative Judaism formally approved same-sex marriage ceremonies in a vote.
In , the Central Conference of American Rabbis passed a resolution approving same-sex civil marriage. However, this same resolution made a distinction between civil marriages and religious marriages; this resolution thus stated:. In , an ad-hoc CCAR committee on human sexuality issued its majority report 11 to 1, 1 abstention which stated that the holiness within a Jewish marriage "may be present in committed same gender relationships between two Jews and that these relationships can serve as the foundation of stable Jewish families, thus adding strength to the Jewish community.
Also in , the Responsa Committee of the CCAR issued a lengthy teshuvah rabbinical opinion  that offered detailed argumentation in support of both sides of the question whether a rabbi may officiate at a commitment ceremony for a same-sex couple. In March , CCAR issued a new resolution stating that "We do hereby resolve that the relationship of a Jewish, same gender couple is worthy of affirmation through appropriate Jewish ritual, and further resolve, that we recognize the diversity of opinions within our ranks on this issue.
We support the decision of those who choose to officiate at rituals of union for same-sex couples, and we support the decision of those who do not. The Reconstructionist Rabbinical Association RRA encourages its members to officiate at same-sex marriages, though it does not require it of them. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article's lead section may not adequately summarize its contents. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines , please consider modifying the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points in such a way that it can stand on its own as a concise version of the article.
Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Interfaith marriage in Judaism. Judaism and sexual orientation. Archived from the original on Singer, Isidore ; et al.
William Horbury; John Sturdy, eds. Conservative Judaism does not sanction intermarriage, but encourages acceptance of the non-Jewish spouse by the family in the hope that such acceptance will lead to the spouse's conversion to Judaism. Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism do not generally regard the authority of classical rabbis; many rabbis from these denominations are willing to officiate at interfaith marriages,   although they try to persuade intermarried couples to raise their children as Jews.
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In , some Reform Jews published the opinion that intermarriage is prohibited. In the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College voted to accept rabbinical students in interfaith relationships, making Reconstructionist Judaism the first movement within Judaism to allow rabbis to have relationships with non-Jewish partners. The Society for Humanistic Judaism answers the question, "Is intermarriage contributing to the demise of Judaism? If the Jewish community is open, welcoming, embracing, and pluralistic, we will encourage more people to identify with the Jewish people rather than fewer. Intermarriage could contribute to the continuity of the Jewish people.
During the early 19th century, intermarriage was relatively rare; less than one-tenth of one percent of the Jews of Algeria, for example, practiced exogamy. In the United States from to , nearly half 47 percent of marriages involving Jews were intermarriages with non-Jewish partners  a similar proportion—44 percent—as in the early 20th century in New South Wales.
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In Hinduism, spiritual texts like Vedas and Gita do not speak of caste and related marriages. However, law books like Manusmriti , Yajnavalkya smriti, Parashara etc. According to the varna system, marriage is normally between two individuals of the same varna. Ancient Hindu literature identified four varnas: Brahmins , Kshatriyas , Vaishyas and Shudras.
In ancient days, this varna system was strictly professional division based on one's profession. With time, it became a birthright. According to Manusmriti , partners in an inter-gotra marriage should be shunned. Rural India which is mainly conservative follows this rule, while Hindus living in the cities and foreign countries often accept inter-caste marriage.
Some gurdwaras allow weddings between a Sikh and a non-Sikh , but others oppose it. In the Sikh Council in UK developed a consistent approach towards marriages in Gurdwaras where one partner is not of Sikh origin, following a two-year consultation with Gurdwara Sahib Committees, Sikh Organisations and individuals. The resulting guidelines were approved by the General Assembly of Sikh Council UK on 11 October , and state that Gurdwaras are encouraged to ensure that both parties to an Anand Karaj wedding are Sikhs, but that where a couple chooses to undertake a civil marriage they should be offered the opportunity to hold an Ardas , Sukhmani Sahib Path , Akhand Path , or other service to celebrate their marriage in the presence of family and friends.